2. Folkmarks
Since the dawn of time people have tried to codify their relationship with their families, friends and community,and place themselves and their species in the context of the planets and stars.  The rules to guide human relationships begin with myths and legends that exemplify the importance of tradition.  The words folk and lore as understood in everyday language denote, respectively, common people and a particular body of tradition handed down from generation to generation. 
Folkmarks are ideas that define the behavioural rules holding a particular society together.  They have their roots in the distant past when they were put together as stories in order to define what is expected, and allowed, in human relationships and the beliefs that define the place of particular groups in the cosmos.
Folklore can be defined as the common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, beliefs and superstitions, arts and crafts and stories of the people and has historical, ethnological and sociological components. These are recreated in each generation and cannot be traced back to particular author or date, and the mode of transmitting is basically oral. Though folklore is characteristic of geography, culture and history etc, it has universal character in its messages for maintaining social harmony. 
Religions are also based on stories.  These stories explain ideas about how everything came to be. These creation stories have formed the basis of every belief system, each of which treasures its own account about how and why the world and everything that lives in it began.  Some talk about a god, or gods.  Other's do not.  Some people believe that these stories are really words to paint a picture. Some believe that they are accounts of how things really happened.  Others believe that they are word pictures which try to help us to understand not just how we came to be, but why, and how we should behave.
There is one folkmark where folklore and religion are intertwined.  This is the biblical book of wisdom in the Old Testament, known as Ecclesiastes ('the philosopher') . Through the devices of parable and allegory the reader is pricked into thought about the ends for which men live.  Ecclesiastes perhaps rings more bells in our day than any other book of the Bible. Its author seems to hover between faith and doubt, between enjoyment of life and puzzlement about life's meaning.  'All human actions are in vain and utterly meaningless!', he says.  The author has tried all the normal routes to find satisfaction and meaning to life–pleasure, money, philosophy, hard work, power over others. But there is always a craving for more. And sooner or later death puts a full stop to everyone's life. What meaning is left then? Yet at the same time he feels that life is a gift of God, and that to obey God's commandments is 'the whole duty of mankind'.
Like many people today this writer stumbles between these two reactions. He feels that the meaning of life is always out of his reach, and that death mocks so much of human achievement, and yet that it is right to enjoy the good things of life.
Perhaps there is no real answer to his questions, unless death itself can be conquered. Yet there is a drift of scientific thought to endow humanity with a Godless goal that believes the purpose in human life is to gain knowledge about the the physico chemical process of life, the galaxies and the origins of the universe.  For example, the zoologist Richard Dawkins says: 
"We humans have purpose on the brain. We find it hard to look at anything without wondering what it is "for," what the motive for it is, or the purpose behind it. When the obsession with purpose becomes pathological it is called paranoia-reading malevolent purpose into what is actually random bad luck. But this is just an exaggerated form of a nearly universal delusion. Show us almost any object or process, and it is hard for us to resist the "Why" question-the "What is it for?" question".  
Dawkins believes that this inquisitiveness, which, in a minute span of evolutionary time, took us to the Moon, is  the purpose of human life that was incorporated by evolution into the evolving brains of the first hominids.  In Unweaving The Rainbow he argues that now we have escaped from the forces of Darwinian selection in the wild, our purpose through social evolution lies in discovering why and how we are here.  Appreciating the amazing intricacies of the natural world should give us all enough purpose to our lives. It is a rebuttal against his critics who claim that his biochemical view of the world is a depressing one which leaves no room for human creativity or beauty.
This view was rebutted as an unsatisfactory purpose of life over two millennia ago by the author of Ecclesiastes who as a princely scholar knew something of the biological imperative we have to communicate with a being greater than ourselves.  This is probably hard-wired into our genes:
Said I to myself, "Now here have I gained far more wisdom than any before me in Jerusalem, my mind has such experience of wisdom and knowledge; I have applied myself to wisdom and knowledge as  well as to mad folly, and I find it futile. The more you know, the more you suffer: the more you understand, the more you ache." 
The intangible cultural heritage, as defined in the Convention that was adopted by the 32nd Session of the General Conference of UNESCO, means in the first place the practices, representations, and expressions, as well as the associated knowledge and the necessary skills, that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. 

The intangible cultural heritage, which is sometimes called living cultural heritage, is manifested, inter alia, in the following domains: 
  • oral traditions, expressions and language; 
  • the performing arts; 
  • social practices, rituals, and festive events; 
  • knowledge and practices about nature and the universe; 
  • traditional craftsmanship.
The intangible cultural heritage, while being transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature, and their historical conditions of existence; the intangible cultural heritage provides people and groups of people with a sense of identity and continuity. The safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage promotes, sustains, and develops cultural diversity and human creativity.