1.5.5 Education for conservation
The following four sets of topics were developed from the 'Jacobs Model for Youth Links with Rangers', an education/training pilot to evaluate the principles required to promote environmental literacy.  Cultural ecology is a mind map within which to build these principles into a personal body of knowledge.  A comparison of the ways in which conservation management plans are made can be seen HERE
1  Awareness of international/national designations, and of  wider environmental ethics and sustainable resource management, including the history of national parks and other protected areas.
Global dimensions
  • International Protected Area Management Categories (according to IUCN/WCPA) and International Conventions: their implementation in Europe. Differentiation between management categories II-V and knowledge about regional peculiarities (e.g. German Naturparke, English National Parks, French Parques regionales)
  • Category II national parks: their roots in the USA (roles of philosophers, writers, painters, researchers and politicians in the designation of the first game reserves and national parks, development of the US National Park Service), wilderness ethics and early protected areas in Europe
  • Behaviour and the environment: careful treatment of nature, inspired by the awe of the living. (A. Schweitzer), thinking and acting in the sense of sustainability;
  • Defining and defending green heritage assets against adverse impacts.
Local dimensions
  • National history of nature and landscape conservation.
  • Nature conservation and society.
  • Aims, objectives and tasks of nature conservation.
  • Categories of organisations tasked with nature conservation.
  • Conflicts of aims within nature conservation and solutions, conservation of cultural landscapes vs. free space for natural processes.
  • Instruments of nature conservation.
  • Basics in nature conservation law.
  • Legal authorities and duties of staff in nature conservation agencies.
2  Understanding of the dynamics of, and relationships between, local  landscape, biodiversity and culture, and the resulting conflicts of use.
Global dimensions
  • Interpretation of basic ecological concepts and terms.
  • Biosphere (e.g. changes in atmosphere and climate, ozone problems, storage of environmentally hazard substances, function and endangering the world’s habitats).
  • Photosynthesis (autotrophy), energy flux, nutrient cycles, food chains and food  webs, self purification of waters.
  • Biodiversity, origin of species and subspecies, value of variety as genetic potential for the future, stability by diversity.
  • Sustainability - principles of success of nature's balance (e.g. recycling, cascades of utilization, economical balance of energy and water, diversity instead of monostructures, self-limiting of natural systems, regionalization, examples of green technologies (e.g. in construction, agriculture, sewage treatment, energy and drinking water supply).
  • Natural resources and their benefits for human beings as non-commercial goods.
  • Relationships with local communities and other stakeholders; skills in involving and integrating the communities in issues of managing the protected area; ability to listen effectively and engage in facilitation, conflict resolution and problem solving.
Local dimensions
  • History of landscapes; natural and cultural landscapes.
  • Dynamics of, and relationships between, local landscape,  biodiversity and culture.
  • Conflicts of use in different landscapes (e.g. agriculture, forestry, outdoor recreation, settlement, traffic, nature conservation), forms of nature friendly land-use.
  • Development of cultural habitats and landscapes with minimal intervention.
  • Programmes for financial support of measures in nature conservation and landscape management
  • Knowledge of who the neighbours are and what knowledge and expectations they have.
  • Knowledge of local political agendas and key players in the communities.
  • Ability to demonstrate political, social and cultural sensitivity and tolerance.
3  Ability to survey, monitor and report on the natural resources
Global  dimensions
  • Principles of the Linnaean system
  • Use of identification guides
  • Principles of mapping species, habitats, natural resources and damages to the landscape; how to interpret maps; how to report to the organization
  • Instruments for environmental monitoring
Local dimensions
  • Organisation of and co-operation in nature conservation and landscape management
  • Obtaining knowledge about conspicuous, regionally important, endangered and/or protected species of plants and animals
  • Obtaining knowledge about regionally typical habitat types (origin, development, distribution, utilization, threats, conservation)
  • Use of survey data in planning
4  Knowledge of habitat and operational techniques, with skill in such techniques as an optional specialism
Global dimensions
  • Relationships between strategic and operational conservation plans.
  • Methods and measures in landscape, habitat and species management,
  • Creation and restoration of destroyed habitats.
  • Relief measures for endangered species.
  • General administration and financial planning.
Local dimensions
  • Estimation of damages to habitats and planning of necessary remedial measures.
  • How to use materials and fuels in an environmentally friendly way.
  • How to avoid waste and how to treat waste environmentally friendly.
  • How to implement precautionary measures for the avoidance of environmental damages.
Optional practical specialisms
  • Description, calculation, advertisement, awarding, inspection and approval, financial costing of habitat, landscape and facility management works.
  • Principles of legislation on work, social welfare, contracts and assurance.
  • Knowledge and ability to deal with visitor safety and countryside emergencies.
  • Interpretation services and visitor management.  
  • Producing seed and seed stock.
  • Seeding and planting techniques.
  • Pruning woody plants.
  • Use of machines and tools for landscape management.